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Linux in a Nutshell

This directory of Linux commands is from Linux in a Nutshell, 5th Edition.

Click on any of the 687 commands below to get a description and list of available options. All links in the command summaries point to the online version of the book on Safari Bookshelf.

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arecord [options] [filename]

Records midi files using ALSA. You must specify the port using the -p flag.



Set the sequencer host and port used. The default host is the local host, and the default is port 0.


Display help message.


Display version number.

-l, --list

List available ports.


Set the tempo value to n beats per minute. The default is 120.


Set timing (SMPTE resolution) to n frames per second. The value is normally 24, 25, 29.97 (NTSC dropframe), or 30.


Set the frequency with which timestamps, or ticks, are used in the file. For MIDI files using musical tempo, timestamps are set in ticks per beat (default 384), while those with SMPTE timing use ticks per frame (default 40).


For each channel of input, create a separate track in the MIDI output file.

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