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Linux in a Nutshell

This directory of Linux commands is from Linux in a Nutshell, 5th Edition.

Click on any of the 687 commands below to get a description and list of available options. All links in the command summaries point to the online version of the book on Safari Bookshelf.

Buy it now, or read it online on Safari Bookshelf.


du [options] [directories]

Print disk usage (as the number of 1 KB blocks used by each named directory and its subdirectories; default is the current directory).


-a, --all

Print disk usage for all files, not just subdirectories.

-b, --bytes

Print sizes in bytes.

-c, --total

In addition to normal output, print grand total of all arguments.

-D, --dereference-args

Follow symbolic links, but only if they are command-line arguments.

-h, --human-readable

Print sizes in human-readable format.

-H, --si

Like -h, but show as power of 1000 rather than 1024.

-k, --kilobytes

Print sizes in kilobytes (this is the default).

-l, --count-links

Count the size of all files, whether or not they have already appeared (i.e., via a hard link).

-L, --dereference

Follow symbolic links.


Exclude files that match pattern.


Report sizes for directories only down to num levels below the starting point (which is level 0).

-m, --megabytes

Print sizes in megabytes.

-s, --summarize

Print only the grand total for each named directory.

-S, --separate-dirs

Do not include the sizes of subdirectories when totaling the size of parent directories.

-x, --one-file-system

Display usage of files in current filesystem only.

-X, --exclude-from=file

Exclude files that match any pattern in file.


Print help message and then exit.


Print the version and then exit.

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