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Linux in a Nutshell

This directory of Linux commands is from Linux in a Nutshell, 5th Edition.

Click on any of the 687 commands below to get a description and list of available options. All links in the command summaries point to the online version of the book on Safari Bookshelf.

Buy it now, or read it online on Safari Bookshelf.


free [options]

Display statistics about memory usage: total free, used, physical, swap, shared, and buffers used by the kernel.



Calculate memory in bytes.


Default. Calculate memory in kilobytes.


Calculate memory in megabytes.


Do not display "buffer adjusted" line. The -o switch disables the display "-/+ buffers" line that shows buffer memory subtracted from the amount of memory used and added to the amount of free memory.

-s time

Check memory usage every time seconds.


Display all totals on one line at the bottom of output.


Display version information.

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