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Linux in a Nutshell

This directory of Linux commands is from Linux in a Nutshell, 5th Edition.

Click on any of the 687 commands below to get a description and list of available options. All links in the command summaries point to the online version of the book on Safari Bookshelf.

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netstat [options] [delay]

TCP/IP command. Show network status. Print information on active sockets, routing tables, interfaces, masquerade connections, or multicast memberships. By default, netstat lists open sockets. When a delay is specified, netstat will print new information every delay seconds.


The first five options (-g, -i, -M, -r, and -s) determine what kind of information netstat should display.

-g, --groups

Show multicast group memberships.

-i, --interface[=name]

Show all network interfaces, or just the interface specified by name.

-M, --masquerade

Show masqueraded connections.

-r, --route

Show kernel routing tables.

-s, --statistics

Show statistics for each protocol.

-a, --all

Show all entries.

-A family, --protocol=family

Show connections only for the specified address family. Accepted values are inet, unix, ipx, ax25, netrom, and ddp. Specify multiple families in a comma-separated list.

-c, --continuous

Display information continuously, refreshing once every second.


Print routing information from the route cache.

-e, --extend

Increase level of detail in reports. Use twice for maximum detail.


Print routing information from the forward information database (FIB). This is the default.

-l, --listening

Show only listening sockets.

-n, --numeric

Show network addresses, ports, and users as numbers.


Show host addresses as numbers, but resolve others.


Show ports as numbers, but resolve others.


Show user ID numbers for users, but resolve others.

-N, --symbolic

Where possible, print symbolic host, port, or usernames instead of numerical representations. This is the default behavior.

-o, --timers

Include information on network timers.

-p, --program

Show the process ID and name of the program owning the socket.

-t, --tcp

Limit report to information on TCP sockets.

-u, --udp

Limit report to information on UDP sockets.

-v, --verbose

Verbose mode.

-w, --raw

Limit report to information on raw sockets.

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