Intrusion detection isn't anything new. Throughout the history of computer networking, administrators have worked to find ways of tracking system security breaches and identifying the culprits behind them. Network administrators have a wide range of sophisticated tools to improve auditing, and to report and block intrusion. The TriSentry suite, from Psionic Technologies, is one such free tool.
TriSentry is composed of three applications. PortSentry detects, reports, and blocks port scanning. LogSentry examines system logs for security violations and generates administrative reports. HostSentry monitors user logins and activities, detecting breaches and unusual behavior.
Port scanning, or using an automated tool to probe a host for open TCP
ports, is increasingly common on the Internet. Though intended to help
administrators secure their networks, port scanners may also be used by
malicious users to find vulnerable services. Common exploits include daemons
portmapper and various database applications.
The PortSentry application detects and blocks these scans. It works well on
Unix and Unix-like systems. Using the principle of socket binding, PortSentry
listens on a series of unused ports. If a remote host attempts to connect, its
IP address is added to a blackhole list, and cannot continue its scan or make
any other TCP requests. Blocking is performed either through the appropriate
firewall software (
iptables on Linux,
ipfw on *BSD) or through the routing table (the
utility on most Unixes).
Version 1.1, well-loved by many sysadmins, also supports stealth scan detection (only for Linux), multiple protocols, and various attack responses.
Download the PortSentry distribution from the Psionic site. As with all new installations, review the README file for the latest instructions.
Pass the OS name (e.g.
solaris) to the
make command to configure the build.
For a complete list of available options, type
make with no
make install as the root user will install the
binaries and configuration files with the appropriate permissions.
PortSentry is also available through the FreeBSD ports collection, in
After installing, edit the configuration file. By default, it's located at
/usr/local/etc/portsentry.conf. This file is well-commented;
configuration is vital to the correct operation or PortSentry. For our
example, we'll set the listening ports and configure the
route blocking options for a FreeBSD box with IPFW compiled
into the kernel. It's important to remember that when using the firewall
option under FreeBSD, you must have IP_FW compiled into the
PortSentry will listen for TCP and UDP packets on all ports specified in
UDP_PORTS directives, respectively.
The ports must be expressed as a list of comma-separated values, with no
embedded spaces. This example has had lines broken to fit on the page, but
represents one logical line per directive:
TCP_PORTS="1,7,9,11,15,70,79,109,111,119,138,139,143,\ 512,513,514,515,540,635,1080,1524,2000,2001,4000,4001,5742,6000,\ 6001,6667,12345,12346,20034,27665,30303,32771,32772,32773,32774,\ 31337,40421,40425,49724,54320" UDP_PORTS="1,7,9,66,67,68,69,111,137,138,161,162,474,513,517,518,\ 635,640,641,666,700,2049,31335,27444,34555,32770,32771,32772,\ 32773,32774,31337,54321"
In order to block malicious users with a kernel-level packet filter, use
KILL_ROUTE directive. PortSentry will replace the string
$TARGET$ with the source address, executing the result as a
standard command. On FreeBSD with
ipfw, the configuration will
kill_route="/sbin/ipfw add 1 deny all from $TARGET$:255.255.255.255 \ to any"
In the absence of some sort of packet filtering,
can use the venerable
route command as a last-ditch backup. It
will only work for TCP attacks, though. The command will look something like:
KILL_ROUTE="route add -net $TARGET$ -netmask 255.255.255.255 \ 127.0.0.1 -blackhole"
If you have
ipfw, use that instead. See the copious comments in the
configuration file for more details.
KILL_RUN_CMD directive is also useful. It specifies a
command to run after blocking a scanner. I use a custom notification alarm to
mail the system administrator. It's a simple shell script, in
/usr/local/etc/notify. In the interests of security, it's owned
wheel, and has no write permissions.
#!/bin/sh echo "My computer has been attacked" | \ mail -s "Strobe Attack on My System" email@example.com
Enabling this in
portsentry.conf is as you'd expect:
This option may also be used to execute a return attack on the host, although I don't recommend doing this :-)
Occasionally, we need to allow certain hosts the ability to scan our system
without being blacklisted. PortSentry checks the file
portsentry.ignore for these hosts. It should normally contain
blocked hosts are added to
portsentry.blocked.tcp and UDP-based
blocks are added to
Portsentry.blocked.udp. Their contents will
persist until the next system restart. Finally, the
portsentry.history file contains a running history of all blocked
hosts. This file remains constant even after a reboot. It may also be exported
to a database for further analysis.
Starting PortSentry is easy:
/usr/local/bin/portsentry -tcp &
This example uses the classic TCP detection mode with the
switch. Other options may be added. For example,
Stealth Scan mode, on Linux.
-udp enables UDP mode.
Once PortSentry is running, you should test it. Various port scanners I use
nmap, ISS (Internet Security Scanner), and Strobe
(available with Slackware). We will use
nmap for this example.
NOTE: If the test succeeds, you will not be able to reconnect from the probing host. Plan ahead!
nmap is easy:
nmap -O target_host
To ensure the program has blocked the attacking IP, try re-connecting to
the target host. It should fail. On the host,
tail the message log
to ensure the attacker is identified and blocked:
Sep 19 01:50:19 striker portsentry: attackalert: \ Host 192.168.0.1 has been blocked via dropped route using command: \ "/sbin/ipfw add 1 deny all from 192.168.0.1:255.255.255.255 to any" Sep 19 01:50:19 striker portsentry: attackalert: \ Connect from host: 192.168.0.1/192.168.0.1 to TCP port: 9 Sep 19 01:50:19 striker portsentry: attackalert: \ Host: 192.168.0.1 is already blocked. Ignoring ...
route to drop the IP, you can examine the routing
netstat --nr. Blocked hosts will show routes pointing
to the IP you designated as your blackhole.
The recent releases of PortSentry beta versions 2.0b have seen some notable improvements. These beta versions still require some work, but are worth playing with if you need these features:
2.0b1 from the Psionic Web site. (It is not yet available as a BSD port.)
You will need to edit the
portsentry_config.h file to match the
file paths on your system. Follow the standard compilation and configuration
instructions for version 1.1. (Remember to pass your architecture name to the
If you run into compilation errors during your build, re-check the paths in
portsentry_config.h and compile again. This compilation is known
to work under Linux and FreeBSD. Be sure to read the README file included in
I've been using PortSentry since its early release and find it to be an excellent complement to the TriSentry suite of applications. Though I prefer version 1.1 in a production environment, I have confidence that version 2 will become a favorite when it is officially released.
LogSentry, originally named Logcheck, is based on a log-auditing program
frequentcheck.sh, featured in the GauntletTMfirewall package by Trusted Information Systems Inc., and cloned under license by
LogSentry automates log-file auditing by grepping for predefined keywords within message and mail logs. When it finds a match, it notifies the System Administrator by mailing a security alert. The application is known to run under platforms ranging from Linux to Solaris and FreeBSD. It can be configured to report entries containing specific keywords and to report entries that do not contain other keywords.
LogSentry comes in two pieces, a shell script named
logcheck.sh and a binary named
logtail. The shell
script runs hourly (from
cron), reading the most recent messages
from the log files, looking for attack messages from
PortSentry. Any violations are mailed to the system administrator. The binary
keeps track of the last position of each log file, so as not to re-review old
To obtain LogSentry, download the tarred source available from Psionic. Optionally, you
may choose to install this as a packaged port under FreeBSD called
/usr/ports/security/logcheck. Be sure to read the INSTALL and
README files prior to proceeding.
LogSentry configuration requires editing the well-commented
logcheck.sh file. While reviewing the variables below, scroll
through the script to familiarize yourself with its functionality.
Provided you have compiled under a supported platform, the default configuration
should be sufficient. To be sure, check the following within
SYSADMINvariable to the person who will receive violation messages.
Several other supplementary files allow LogSentry customization:
logcheck.hackingcontains keywords that identify attacks on your system.
logcheck.violationscontains keywords of negative system events. Examples include denied or refused connections, such as
striker [proftpd] connection refused.
logcheck.violations.ignorecontains keywords that are reverse-searched against the
logcheck.violationsfile. Violations are not reported if one of these keywords is present. For example, local mail errors can be skipped with the line
logcheck.ignoreis the catch-all file for keywords to ignore. Messages containing these words will not be reported. Be sure not to add too many wildcards or messages that may indeed be system breaches.
logcheck.sh may also be customized to check various logs as
syslog.conf. For maximum benefit, set the latter to
report as much information as possible.
Before running LogSentry, verify that the file has the proper permissions.
I recommend setting a mode of
700 and an owner and group of
wheel. Next, ensure it is error-free by
/usr/local/etc/logcheck.sh by hand. If that works, add an entry to
cron. I like to redirect all output to
0 * * * * root /usr/local/etc/logcheck.sh 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null
LogSentry also works well in larger networks, where dozens or hundreds of
servers may report
syslog activity to a central server. An
administrator can tail the output, grabbing local logs as necessary. (Each
server must use some method to synchronize its time; I use
ntpdate). For more information on
syslogd and how to
set up a remote monitor, please refer to Michael
Lucas's article on
Understanding LogSentry is easy. Once installed, it outperforms many commercial products. Overall, I give LogSentry two thumbs up for performance, compatibility, and stability.
HostSentry is the third application in the TriSentry suite. It uses a dynamic, Python-based database to track user activity. This helps it to detect unusual logins, suspicious domains and directories, tampered command histories, and unknown login attempts. Administrators can quickly respond to anomalies and compromised accounts.
HostSentry requires Python. Download version 2.2.1 or greater from http://www.python.org/. It's also in the
FreeBSD ports collection. If you compile it, be sure to activate the
The database records login and logout events, as well as login problems. The current version of the schema includes the following fields:
On most systems, the default configuration will suffice. Configuration takes place by editing any or all of the three initial files. They are well-commented.
hostsentry.conf contains file paths and the main
configuration. Ensure that each path is correct:
IGNORE_FILE="/usr/local/abacus/hostsentry/hostsentry.ignore" ACTION_FILE="/usr/local/abacus/hostsentry/hostsentry.action" MODULE_FILE="/usr/local/abacus/hostsentry/hostsentry.modules" MODULE_PATH="/usr/local/abacus/hostsentry/modules" WTMP_FILE="/var/log/wtmp" DB_FILE="/usr/local/abacus/hostsentry/hostsentry.db" DB_TTY_FILE="/usr/local/abacus/hostsentry/hostsentry.tty.db"
hostsentry.modules determines which modules to execute on
login and logout and the order in which to execute them. To prevent a module
from running, remove it from this file. This is a simple instructional set of
how each loaded module executes and in what order.
moduleLoginLogout moduleFirstLogin moduleForeignDomain moduleMultipleLogins moduleRhostsCheck moduleHistoryTruncated moduleOddDirnames
hostsentry.ignore contains a list of user names for HostSentry
to ignore. For example, the
ftp user might be ignored, as a large
number of legitimate-but-anonymous logins would cause many false alarms. Place
usernames that you want to ignore in this file, with one user per line:
After completing the configuration, test the program with the command
python hostsentry.py. Check your messages log for something
resembling the following:
Sep 20 19:24:08 striker hostsentry: adminalert: \ LOGIN User: glenn TTY: ttyp6 Host: 192.168.1.1 Sep 20 19:24:08 striker hostsentry: securityalert: \ First time login for user: glenn Sep 20 19:24:08 striker hostsentry: securityalert: \ Action being taken for user: glenn Sep 20 19:24:08 striker hostsentry: securityalert: \ Module requesting action is: moduleFirstLogin Sep 20 19:24:08 striker hostsentry: securityalert: \ Foreign domain login detected for user: glenn from: 192.168.1.1 Sep 20 19:24:08 striker hostsentry: securityalert: \ Action being taken for user: glenn Sep 20 19:24:08 striker hostsentry: securityalert: \ Module requesting action is: moduleForeignDomain
Finally, automate the startup using standard scripts, such as
To understand HostSentry fully, you should have some knowledge of Python. The Python DevCenter has more information. I've been using HostSentry for about three months and find it a robust method of monitoring user logins and anomalies.
Glenn Graham has been working with telecommunications since 1977.
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