Cheap IP Takeoverby Rob Flickenger, author of Linux Server Hacks
Accomplish IP takeover with
bash, and a simple network utility.
Directing traffic to one of several machines is fairly straightforward when using round-robin DNS. But what happens when one of those servers becomes unavailable? Here's one scheme for monitoring the health of another server, and standing in for it if it fails.
First, we need to make a distinction between the server's "real" IP address, and the IP (or IPs) from which it actually serves public content. For this example, we'll be referring to two servers, Pinky and Brain. Pinky uses the IP address 220.127.116.11 for its "real" IP on eth0, and also has an IP alias of 18.104.22.168 on eth0:0. Brain uses 22.214.171.124 on eth0, and 126.96.36.199 on eth0:0. If you've never used IP aliases before, here's the very quick how-to:
# ifconfig eth0:0 188.8.131.52
... and voila, you have another IP address (184.108.40.206) bound to eth0,
called eth0:0. You used to have to specifically compile IP aliasing into
the kernel, but the option seems to have gone away in recent kernels, and IP aliasing is
apparently on by default. One important thing to remember about IP aliases
is that if the interface that they are bound to (in this case, eth0) is
ever brought down, then all of its associated aliases are also down. You
can also make the alias any alphanumeric string, although some versions of
ifconfig only display the first four or five characters of the alias
when displaying interfaces.
Distributing Your CA to Client Browsers
Once Pinky and Brain have their respective eth0:0s set, bind a service (like Apache) to their aliased IPs, and set up round-robin DNS to point to both with a single hostname. We'll assume that we're setting up redundant web service for www.oreillynet.com, resolving to either 220.127.116.11 or 18.104.22.168.
Now that roughly half of the traffic is going to each server, we'll need Pinky and Brain to monitor each other's health. This can be done by pinging each other's real IP address, and watching the results. Save the following into a script, and install it on Pinky:
#!/bin/bash OTHER="brain" PUBLIC="22.214.171.124" PAUSE=3 PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/sbin MISSED=0 while true; do if ! ping -c 1 -w 1 $OTHER > /dev/null; then ((MISSED++)) else if [ $MISSED -gt 2 ]; then ifconfig eth0:$OTHER down fi MISSED=0 fi; if [ $MISSED -eq 2 ]; then ifconfig eth0:$OTHER $PUBLIC # # ...but see discussion below... # fi sleep $PAUSE; done
126.96.36.199 on the copy that runs on Brain.
Let's suppose that Brain suddenly stops responding on 188.8.131.52
(say a network technician accidentally pulled the wrong plug when working on the
rack). After missing three pings in a row, Pinky will leap into action, bringing
up eth0:brain as 184.108.40.206, the public IP that Brain
is supposed to be serving. It will then continue to watch Brain's real IP
address, and relinquish control when it is back online.
ping -c 1 -w
1 means "send one ping packet, and timeout after one second, no matter
ping will return non-zero if the packet didn't come back in
the one-second time limit.
But this isn't quite the entire solution. Although Pinky is now answering for Brain, any machines on the same network as the two servers (notably, the router just upstream at your ISP) will have the wrong MAC address cached for 220.127.116.11. With the wrong MAC address cached, no traffic will flow to Pinky, since it will only respond to packets that bear its own MAC address. How can we tell all of the machines on the 18.104.22.168 network that the MAC address for 22.214.171.124 has been updated?
One way is to use the
send_arp utlity from the High Availability
Linux project. This very handy (and tiny) utility will craft an ARP packet
to your specifications, and send it to a MAC address of your choice on the
local network. If we specify all ones (for example, ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff) for
the destination, then it effectively becomes a broadcast ARP packet. Most routers won't update their ARP tables when they see unrequested ARP
broadcasts, but such a packet will signal them to resend an ARP request, to which
Pinky will obligingly reply. The advantage of using broadcast is that it
will signal all machines on the subnet simultaneously, instead of having to
keep track of all of the MAC addresses of machines that need updating.
The syntax of
send_arp [Source IP] [Source MAC]
[Target IP] [Target MAC]. For example, our simple monitoring script
above should run the following when it detects that Brain is down:
send_arp 126.96.36.199 00:11:22:aa:bb:cc 188.8.131.52 fffffffffff
... where 00:11:22:aa:bb:cc is the hardware MAC address of Pinky's eth0. The script can continue to watch when Brain's real IP address (184.108.40.206) becomes available. When it does, we can bring eth0:brain back down, and let Brain worry about updating the ARP cache again (which it should be set to do on boot, and whenever its interface becomes available again).
There are a number of improvements that could be made to this technique.
For one thing, just because 220.127.116.11 is up doesn't guarantee
that 18.104.22.168 is also available. Also,
ping isn't the best
test for service availability (a better test might be to actually request a
web page from the other machine, and make sure that it has a success code
These improvements are left as an exercise to you, dear reader. Every site is different, so you'll need to find the technique that works best with the tools that you have for the problem at hand. After all, that's exactly what a hack is, isn't it?
O'Reilly & Associates recently released (January 2003) Linux Server Hacks.
For more information, or to order the book, click here.
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